BlueWorld

Asia: Mongolia



About Mongolia

Long a province of China, Mongolia won its independence in 1921 with Soviet backing. A communist regime was installed in 1924. During the early 1990s, the ex-communist Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (MPRP) gradually yielded its monopoly on power. In 1996, the Democratic Union Coalition (DUC) defeated the MPRP in a national election. Over the next four years the Coalition implemented a number of key reforms to modernize the economy and institutionalize democratic reforms. However, the former communists were a strong opposition that stalled additional reforms and made implementation difficult. In 2000, the MPRP won 72 of the 76 seats in Parliament and completely reshuffled the government. While it continues many of the reform policies, the MPRP is focusing on social welfare and public order priorities.


Vital Statistics
Capitol City: Ulaanbaatar
Population: 2,654,999 (July 2001 est.)
Percent below poverty: 40% (2000 est.)
Language: Khalkha Mongol 90%, Turkic, Russian (1999)
Date of independence: 11 July 1921 (from China)
Form of government: parliamentary
Title of Leader: President, Prime Minister
Natural Resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold, silver, iron, phosphate
Environmental Issues: limited natural fresh water resources in some areas; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants
Agricultural Products: wheat, barley, potatoes, forage crops; sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses
Imports: machinery and equipment, fuels, food products, industrial consumer goods, chemicals, building materials, sugar, tea
Exports: copper, livestock, animal products, cashmere, wool, hides, fluorspar, other nonferrous metals
Trading Partners: IMPORTS: Russia 33%, China 21%, Japan 12%, South Korea 10%, US 4% (1999)
EXPORTS: China 60%, US 20%, Russia 9%, Japan 2% (2000 est.)

 

Mongolia Headlines


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