Area Total 438,317 sq km
Climate mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq
Natural Resources petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur
Imports $39.47 billion (2017 est.) partners: Turkey 27.8%, China 25.7%, South Korea 4.7%, Russia 4.3% (2017) – food, medicine, manufactures
Government federal parliamentary republic
Capital Baghdad
Population 40.2 million (July 2018 est.)
Ethnicity Arab 75-80%, Kurdish 15-20%, other 5%
Language Arabic (official), Kurdish (official), Turkmen (a Turkish dialect), Syriac (Neo-Aramaic), and Armenian official in areas where native speakers of these languages constitute a majority of the population
Exports $61.4 billion (2017 est.) partners: India 21.2%, China 20.2%, US 15.8%, South Korea 9.4%, Greece 5.3%, Netherlands 4.8%, Italy 4.7% (2017) – crude oil 99%, crude materials excluding fuels, food, live animals

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Iraq map