Area Total 912,050 sq km
Climate tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Natural Resources petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds
Imports agricultural products, livestock, raw materials, machinery and equipment, transport equipment, construction materials, medical equipment, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, iron and steel products – US 24.8%, China 14.2%, Mexico 9.5% (2017)
Government federal presidential republic
Capital Caracas
Population 31,689,176 (July 2018 est.)
Ethnicity unspecified Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people
Language Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects
Exports petroleum and petroleum products, bauxite and aluminum, minerals, chemicals, agricultural products – US 34.8%, India 17.2%, China 16%, Netherlands Antilles 8.2%, Singapore 6.3%, Cuba 4.2% (2017)

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